Crete tourist guide

The best Polish website dedicated to the Greek island Crete and to a small extent of continental Greece. You will find useful information related to visiting Crete that goes beyond the offer of optional tours. On the website you will also find descriptions of the most interesting places that we visited by visiting this largest Greek island. The content complements the current news, photographs and recipes of Greek cuisine.

History of Crete from Paleolithic to Dark Ages

paleolith

Until the middle of the first decade of the 21st century, little was known about the older Stone Age in Crete. Initial information was sporadic and uncertain. Only later discoveries made it possible to establish that the first inhabitants appeared on the southern coasts of the island already in the lower Paleolithic (about 130,000 years ago). They intensively penetrated the current island of Gavdos (then connected with Crete) located about 35 km further south. Based on the observations of changes in the animal habitat of Crete, the scientists concluded that the island was inhabited throughout the entire Stone Age. Unfortunately, little items were found from this period, which were grouped in an appendix in a limited area along the south-west coasts.

Neolithic

(5000-2600 BC)

At this time, the oldest pottery finds from Knossos and Fajstos (Festos) date back to. Stone tools were also found. In Knossos below the West Court, especially in the so-called koulourach (round tanks), fragments of buildings made of stones and dried bricks were found.
Children's burials in the pits under the floors of houses are known. For burial purposes, a cave was also used in Crete (especially in the north and east). It is known that barley, wheat and legumes were grown at that time. The settlers came to Crete probably with domesticated animals and breeding plants. In the late Neolith, mountain crystals were used to make tools. The early Neolithic also brings first evidence of the existence of weaving in Crete, in the form of weights, spindles and canoes.



The question remains about the origin of the earliest inhabitants of the island, undoubtedly they got to Crete by sea. Until the final phase of the Neolithic period, however, Crete had few inhabitants, and the economy continued its land forms brought by settlers from the continent.

The pre-palace period

(2600-2000 BC)

In the pre-palace period, the local population absorbed newcomers from Asia Minor, and as a result, an autonomous culture was created, as evidenced by found cult objects, ceramics or circular graves belonging to this period. In the pre-palace period maritime trade with Egypt, Asia Minor and Mesopotamia is developing. At the end of the pre-palace period, a primitive hieroglyphic writing used on the Minoan seals develops. Noteworthy is the appearance of copper and bronze for products. Ceramics is very different from Neolithic. It is still hand-made, however new shapes appear: spherical jugs, goblets and hemispherical bowls decorated with linear patterns.

A period of older palaces

(2000-1700 BC)

There is an extraordinary development of settlements, which in many regions reached the highest density in the whole history of Minoan Crete. The first monumental palace buildings in Knossos, Phaistos, Malia and Zakros were created, testifying to the separation and development of leadership centers performing political, religious, administrative and economic functions, which was accompanied by the development of writing systems. Proof of economic functions is the existence in the palaces of warehouses and circular reservoirs for grain, usually in the western courtyard.





The lack of fortifications of these palaces proves that the Minoans were considered a great power in this region of the Mediterranean. Currently, the remains of the older palace in Phaistos are best preserved, but in all cases earlier buildings were covered with later palaces. The period of older palaces brings about a significant development of sanctuaries on the tops of the hills. Less frequent forms are places of worship placed in caves. There was also the first great flowering of art and artistic craftsmanship and the education of their own unique, recognizable as a Minoan style.
Around 1700 BC, probably a great earthquake puts an end to all the major palaces of Crete and many settlements.

The period of younger palaces

(1700-1450 BC)

This is the time considered to be the most splendid epoch in the history of Crete. From the period of chaos, Crete emerged in a new form - a palace civilization, well organized and in full bloom. The Minoans rebuilt their palaces destroyed by the earthquake. They were even brighter than their predecessors and equipped with iconic rooms.

If you believed Homer at that time in Crete, there were about 90 cities, and the capital of the island was Knossos. Crete has risen from the collapse after the cataclysm, there has been economic and cultural development. Art produced at that time was characterized by a high artistic level, while the magazine evolved towards a syllable writing and began to be used more widely. Cretan culture covered not only Mycenae, but also the rest of the Greek areas located near the island. A period of destruction followed during the fall of the younger palaces, during which all but Knossos palaces and many settlements lay in ruins. It is striking that in many places buildings related to administrative functions have been destroyed, while neighboring houses have remained intact. This indicates conflicts between centers or invasion as a cause of disasters.

Other causes of the fall of the thriving state and the first very advanced European culture are seen by the scientists in the huge tsunami caused by the volcanic eruption on the island of Santorini. The rest were completed by the Achais of Mycenae who took advantage of the moment of significant weakening of Crete and invaded the island. Crete has never reached such splendor after these events.

Post-palace period

(1400-1100 BC)

It is true that the palace in Knossos is rebuilt in 1375 BC but after a few years it loses its meaning. Crete at that time is controlled by Mykene people. Minoan culture is also subject to their dominance. Agar Triada, Tylissos and Gournia create megarons. Evans - the later discoverer of Knossos - finds in the Palace of Knossos clay tablets from that period with the linear script of B of Mycenaean origin. The final collapse of the Cretan culture (already strongly influenced by Mycenaean influences) follows the destruction of various sea peoples.
This time is also referred to as the approximate date of the battle for Troy.




Dark Ages

(1100-800 BC)

The Dory invasion forced the Minoans (the Athenians, as they called themselves, or the real Cretans) to retreat into the interior of the island. They build new cities on inaccessible areas of the eastern part of the island. The Doras strengthen the coast of the island by building numerous city-states and fortified strongholds. Citizens grant certain rights that are written down. An example is the Gortonic Plaques with the codex, which can be viewed now at the Gortyna site. After many centuries, the bronze is supplanted by iron, which is used to produce better weapons. Crete is absorbed by Greece in terms of religion, art and culture. The language and the letter are also becoming unified.



[read more >> History of Crete from the classical era to the first years of freedom]

[read more >> Contemporary history of Crete]

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The funeral of Nikos Kazantsakis - November 5, 1957

The funeral of Nikos Kazantsakis - November 5, 1957

Crete has always had a special place in the heart of Nikos Kazantsakis. Born on February 18, 1885 in Heraklion, thanks to the care of his parents, he came a long way to becoming one of the most important writers of contemporary Greek literature. Always faithful to his passions and beliefs, he rarely counted on the opinions of other people. In his life, he pointed to dreams and journeys as one of the greatest inspirations, which in 1957 contributed to the fact that the history of his life and work ended.

The history of Crete from the classical era to the first years of freedom

The history of Crete from the classical era to the first years of freedom

The history of Crete from the classical period to the first years of freedom. The increasing significance of Athens causes a drastic reduction in the political and cult role of Crete. In 67 BC, the island gets into the hands of the Romans, who are beginning to introduce their orders. Gortyna becomes the capital of the Roman province called Crete-Kyrene. The Romans are building infrastructure: roads, aqueducts, temples and theaters. Agriculture and culture are developing. All of Greece at this time becomes a Roman province, although its rich culture begins to influence the achievements of the Romans

Contemporary history of Crete

Contemporary history of Crete

On October 6, 1908, the Republic of Crete declared independence. May 30, 1913 was included in Greece. In 1941, during the Second World War, the island was a scene of a fierce battle between the German paratroopers and the Allied troops defending it.

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Najnowsze komentarze:

gość drozda: My atakowaliśmy tydzień temu od strony morza , po jakimś kilometrze niestety całą szerokością płynie strumień, ale i tak jest fajnie :)
gość PiotrWie: Dzisiaj zrobiło się tak ciepło że o 19 kupiliśmy lody na ulicy. A Rosjanie to się nawet kąpali ale nie wiem może są z Syberii
Andy Hatfield: Drove through it from rythmno to avios pavlos plakias and galini beautiful drive
Danusia Krzyżaniak-Sowa: Będę pozytywnej myśli
Piotrek | www.crete.pl : A u nas w Polsce na ten tydzień zapowiadane są dwa dni z temperaturami podchodzącymi pod 30'C. Na razie jednak póki co mamy bardzo silne wiatry, które podnoszą z ziemi pył i kurz :/
Piotrek | www.crete.pl : Super, że poprawili oznakowanie szlaku, bo wcześniej bywało z tym różnie. Podziwiam, że mimo takiej ilości wody udało Wam się dojść do wodospadu. Pamiętam, że miejscami nawet w czasie kiedy my byliśmy było dosyć ślisko. W szczególności na tych odcinkach gdzie szlak przechodził w błotnistą ścieżkę (niedaleko ruin dawnych młynów wodnych).
Iwona Strzałkowska-Warmuz: Ja w czerwcu
gość PiotrWie: Byliśmy dziś w wąwozie Richtis. Po deszczach jest wysoki poziom wody i pomiędzy mostem a wodospadem jest naprawdę trudno trzeba mocno kombinować by przekraczać strumień. Miejscami kamienie przeznaczone do tego są przykryte 10 centymetrową warstwą wody. Nawet dojście do mostu nie jest takie proste bo kilkudziesięciometrowymi odcinkami woda płynie całą szerokością i jest niebezpiecznie ślisko. (...)
gość PiotrWie: Było zimno - nasz gospodarz stwierdził że jeszcze nie serwował śniadania w kurtce. Ale od dziś się zdecydowanie ociepla i w przyszłym tygodniu ma być już ciepło.
Anna Pielecka: Wrzesień też bywa niepewny. Mnie zawrócili po kilkuset metrach
Joanna Wypych: Początek maja nigdy nie jest pewny jesli chodzi o Samarie. Jesli byly prognozy przelotnych opadow w regionie Chania, dosyc czesto zdarzalo sie zamykanie wawazu na dzien czy dwa. Jak wiadomo ta zima byla koszmarna i stan wody jest jeszcze wysoki.
Aldona Olińska: No właśnie doświadczyłam tego na własnej skórze, no i w ramach małej rekompensaty byłam dzisiaj w wąwozie Imbros
Daniel Gorzelak: Mam nadzieje ze do 20 maja otworzą
Magdalena Woszczek: Aneta Re
Zofia Sokołowska: Zakonczono poszukiwanie Polaka na Krecie
gość gośc XXXX: Dzień dobry, wybieramy się w tym roku w okresie Majówki na Kretę. Zastanawiam sie jak wygląda sytuacja pogodowa obecnie i czy ktoś może przybliżyć jaki rodzaj ubrań powinniśmy sie zaopatrzyć czy bardziej plażowe czy niestety raczej ciepłe swetry i kurtki?  Z góry dziękuje za odpowiedz.
Emilia Ignatowicz-Steć: Jak z pogoda w Stalidzie?
Ewa Blue: Już za tydzień lece
gość PiotrWie: Strategiczne miejsca to akurat te które warto było odwiedzić co najmniej kilkanaście lat temu - pamiętam Elafonisi z kilkunastoma leżakami przy samym parkingu, obecnie należy szukać miejsc o których przewodniki nie wspominają.
gość PiotrWie: Zakyntos jest - tak samo jak np Korfu - dla tych co lubią odpoczywać w tłumie. Kreta jest na tyle duża że da się znaleźć miejsca gdzie na plaży jest się samemu bądź w towarzystwie kilku osób - a na Korfu na większości plaż trudno było znaleźć miejsce na położenie ręcznika. (...)
Adam Machoczek: Wyspa Kos - Kardamena,polecam.
Sylwia Ba Ka: Dziwne bo tam wcale nie jest ladnie:( Kreta jest niestety przereklamowana. Z Greckich wysp to Zakhyntos jest krolową
Przemek Kądraś: W tamtym roku była Kreta właśnie teraz zmiana kierunku :p
Agnes Mokros: Taak
Jola Ostraszewska: Kreta maj i chyba wrzesień
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